Saturday, June 27, 2020
NovaGold is a company doing exploration activities in the field of precious metals and necessary development of mineral properties in Alaska, British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. The Company spearheads its operations through wholly owned subsidiaries, partnerships and joint ventures. On January 8, 2009, the Company sold its holdings in Alexco Resource Corp. On January 7, 2010, NovaGold and its wholly owned subsidiary, Alaska Gold Company, took over the Ambler property in northern Alaska. Legal and Ethical Actions The Company was facing a class action lawsuit in the district court of New York for violation of security laws. Similar class action lawsuits were also filed in the Supreme Court of British Columbia and in the Ontario Superior Court of justice in Canada. The $28.0 million settlement was covered by insurance companies and the company did not have to payout from own resources under the terms and conditions. (Marketwire 2011) NovaGold commenced environmental studies in 1996, which consisted of Meteorology, wetlands delineation related to mineral resource estimates, aquatic studies in the main drainages, water quality studies, and some waste rock characterization. This was further expanded to terrestrial wildlife and avian surveys, detailed aquatic studies, ambient air monitoring and cultural site surveys. NovaGold is equipped fully to overcome any challenges, even though it may require more time and with the progress of work, it will start showing in the share price. NovaGold clearly understand its community responsibilities and following all environmental norms would work to get all necessary permits to make the project most successful and only one of its kind in the world. (Safehaven 2010) Stocks of NovaGold are traded on NASDAQ, AMEX, and New York Stock Exchange. Revenue and Income From the latest results available for the year ended Nov 30, 2010 of NovaGold Resources Inc., it is seen that revenue has fallen to C$0.6M. Surprisingly, cost of goods sold has not gone down proportionately and it has remained at C$46.3M. Losses have gone up to the tune of C$-203.5M. (NovaGold Financials 2010) Basic Financial Ratios Industrial Comparison Return on Assets: Net Income/ Total Assets stands negative at -5.17%, on industrial comparison it stands as 60-80th percentile. Return on Capital: Given as after-tax operating income by the book value of invested capital and that comes to -5.55%, on industrial comparison it stands as 60-80th percentile. Return on Equity: Net Income/Shareholders Equity stands at -34.48%, on industrial comparison it stands as 40-60th percentile. Credit Ratios: Current Ratio: given by Current Assets/Current Liabilities stands at 5.3 times; on industrial comparison it stands as 60-80th percentile. Quick Ratio: given as Current Assets-Inventory/Current Liabilities stands at 5.1 times; on industrial comparison it stands as 60-80th percentile. Margin Ratios: Gross Margin: given as Revenue-Cost of goods sold/Revenue that stands at -7631.22%, on industrial comparison it stands as 0-20th percentile. EBITDA Margin: -9295.16%, on industrial comparison it stands as 0-20th percentile. Debt-Equity Ratio: Total Debt/ Total Equity stands at 20.5, on industrial comparison it stands as 60-80th percentile. Total Liabilities/Total Assets: 23.8, on industrial comparison it stands as 60-80th percentile. (NovaGold Resources) Sales Forecast: NovaGold is a company doing exploration activities in the field of precious metals and necessary development of mineral properties in Alaska, British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. The Company spearheads its operations through wholly owned subsidiaries, partnerships and joint ventures. The company has prominent projects in Donlin Creek, and Galore Creek. It has also Ambler copper-gold-silver deposit. NovaGolds mines are situated in Alaska, and British Columbia, a region known for government support to harness its mining potentials. The Donlin Creek The Donlin Creek mine, which is going to be a flagship mine and is likely to be only of its kind worldwide that, is capable of producing more than a million ounces of gold per year. Donlin Creek mine is jointly owned by NovaGold and Barrick Gold on a 50/50 basis. NovaGold carried out the feasibility study in April 2009 to assess the production and economic estimates from the Donlin Creek asset. Reserve base is estimated at 33.6 million ounce. The mine life is estimated approximately 25 years. Gold production is expected to average around 1.5 million ounces. This is likely to make Donlin Creek as most promising gold producing mines in the world. This is likely to come into production once permits are received. The feasibility study was done when ruling international price of gold was $825/ounce. The aim of the company management is to use natural gas to reduce operating costs. The feasibility work will get completed by the second half of 2011. Based on this, board will submit a permit application incorporating natural gas that will eliminate diesel as a fuel. The board of the company will then allocate fresh budget for the construction. (Gold Stocks Daily) Galore Creek This is one of the worlds most promising and largest copper-gold-silver deposits. It has highest grade gold silver deposits. NovaGold and Teck Resources each have an equal interest in the project. Ever since NovaGold initiated the project of Galore Creek, it received a support from local communities, British Columbia, and Alaska Government. NovaGold received the Environmental Assessment Certificate in February 2007, and after they received the federal and local authorizations, the construction work went ahead smoothly; however, owing to increased capital expenditures construction activities was suspended and Board initiated optimization studies to find out some alternative strategies for the project. With buoyancy in gold and copper markets, NovaGold and its partner Teck are reviewing more aggressive strategies after having optimization studies which ask for modified approaches to the project allowing a shorter construction and relocation of the facilities along the access road to have easier construction and thus lowering the risks associated with construction and operations. Some of the actions aim at following. There is a planned 40% increase in throughput from the original design. Tunnel and access road are being realigned. The processing facility is being realigned to allow for the future expansion Prefeasibility study will finish by the second quarter of 2011. Outlook NovaGold is currently focused on Donlin Creek and Galore Creek properties. The company is organizing and completing the feasibility study to install natural gas pipe line, and preparing for the permit requests for the project. Primary power source of the project will be natural gas rather than diesel and will be updating capital requirements and cash flow estimates. The feasibility study will get completed in the second half of 2011 and accordingly, Donlin Creek LLC will be proceeding to submit permit applications for the project. (Safehaven 2010) Expected Return Donlin Creek Project The project is likely to provide Gold production of about 1.5 million ounces per year at an average cost of $444/oz. Total gold recovery is likely to be 89.5% through the various processes of crushing, and milling. These processes are further followed by flotation, and pressure oxidation. Average annual cash flow: Base $1000/oz First 5 years: 944 M First 10 years: 805M Average annual Cash Flow Cash flow in $M First Full 5 years 944 Cumulative Net Cash Flow After-Tax undiscounted 5,876 IRR Pre-tax in % 12.3 IRR After-tax in 10.2 Payback 5 years Source: Donlin Creek Feasibility Study Donlin Creek has yet not commenced construction. NovaGold and Barrick are exploring the ways to cut down on cost. Capital Structure: NovaGolds authorized share capital is 1,000,000,000 common shares and 10,000,000 preferred shares. The companys long term debt is within normalcy and stands at $120M. Current Valuation The estimated yearly production of gold to the tune of 2.5 million ounces could get a market cap of 35 billion US dollar based on the present valuation of $1400/ounce. The market cap of NovaGold currently is only $3.3 billion US dollar. NovaGold doesnt have any operations; however, there are some important statistics: Presently, the company has 233 million shares outstanding; The companys debt stands at $120 million; and the company has $152 million in cash (Gold Stocks daily) Dividend: In absence of any surplus and no operations, the company has refrained from declaring any dividend. It is unlikely that the company will declare any dividend until companys operations are in full swing. Shareholders of the company will have to wait for a couple of years for a maiden dividend. Valuation of the NovaGold Stock: The company has not yet commenced any operations and therefore no model of stock valuation can be applied. The only model that can be applied is based on expected future cash flows based on current price of gold, which is ruling at $1400/ounce and available reserves in companys dominant site namely Donlin Creek and Galore Creek. Conclusion: Uncertainty on environmental clearance is definitely a big issue and likely to take considerable time. The silver lining or for that matter gold lining to the company is rising prices of gold, silver and copper. If the company can reduce the construction cost of the mines, get all environmental clearance by the end of this year then project offers huge promise to the shareholders; however, currently, the company is passing through a lot of uncertainties for many analysts are of the view that company is unlikely to get required environmental clearance. NovaGold has always been banking on Donlin Creek project and construction cost is huge to the tune of $4-$5 billion. It will be an uphill task to finance such a big project. As an option, they can also be sold off to Barrick Gold and as for another option the company board may think of further expansion of equity with debt to finance the construction of Donlin Creek. In that event, stock of NovaGold will have down ward pressure and so stock does not offer any immediate promise for investment and it will be better to wait for further deve lopment with regard to environmental clearance and feasibility study that is likely to be available by second quarter of 2011.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Database Systems Design, Implementation and Management Coronel 11th Edition Test Bank Click here to download the test bank INSTANTLY!!! http://www.solutionsmanualtestbank.com/products/2014/12/8/database -systems-design-implementation-and-management-coronel-11thedition-test-bank Database Systems Database Systems Database Systems Test Bank Database Systems Test Bank Design, Implementation and Management Coronel 11th Edition Test Bank Design, Implementation and Management Coronel 11th Edition Test Bank Design, Implementation and Management Coronel Morris 11th Edition Design, Implementation and Management Coronel Morris 11th Edition ***THIS IS NOT THE ACTUAL TEXTBOOK. YOU ARE PURCHASING the Test Bank in e-version of the followingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦a. True b. False ANSWER: False Database Systems Design, Implementation and Management Coronel 11th Edition Test Bank Database Systems Design, Implementation and Management Coronel 11th Edition Test Bank 17. Structural dependence exists when it is possible to make changes in the file structure without affecting the application programÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to access the data. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 18. An advantage of database systems is that you neednÃ¢â¬â¢t perform frequent updates and apply latest patches. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 19. One disadvantage of a database system over previous data management approaches is increased costs. a. True b. False ANSWER: True 20. One advantage of a database system over previous data management approaches is that the database system is considerably less complex. a. True b. False ANSWER: False 21. is the result of revealing the meaning of raw facts. a. End-user data b. An encoded sample c. An encrypted bit d. Information ANSWER: d 22. is the body of information and facts about a specific subject. a. Validation b. A format c. Knowledge d. A database ANSWER: c 23. Accurate, relevant, and timely information is the key to a. data management b. good decision making c. knowledge d. understanding . ANSWER: b 24. End-user data is . a. knowledge about the end users c. information about a specific subject b. raw facts of interest to the end user d. accurate, relevant
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 890 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/02/15 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Bullying Essay Cyber Bullying Essay Did you like this example? Cyberbullying is basically a way in which individuals bully and target others through different forms of technology, by threatening, shaming, spreading rumors, or intimidating them. This is something that I see and hear about occurring mostly with children of all ages, but it can happen to anyone. Victims of this are afraid to reach out to someone and let them know what is going on, due to retaliation and other reasons. It is important that everyone take bullying, but more so cyberbullying, very serious, one hundred percent, because it can cause mental problems, low self-esteem, and changes in personality. Considering the importance of how serious we should take cyberbullying, it can cause mental health problems. People, for example, get on social media, such as Facebook, portraying to be someone that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not or canÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be in person, saying nasty and hurtful things to others on the other end of the keyboard. They may find it funny or think it is cool for some reason, but it can make the victim go into depression. This is something that goes overlooked a lot, but we as a whole should be more observant and ask questions. We see people not eating, walking around sad, not talking, and looking down all the time, thinking that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not much of a social person or donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be there, when deep down inside theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going through something and hurting. That can be a way of them asking for help in silence, but at times it gets ignored. That tormenting can lead to the victim having suicidal thoughts. Today, suicide is something that is happening a lot with our younger children. They are being targeted over and over and donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do about it anymore and may feel like giving up. They can no longer take being taunted or humiliated and may think that harming and eliminating themselves is the easy way out of their situation. Some say, Ã¢â¬Å"words will never hurt meÃ¢â¬ , but in reality, words can cut deeper than any wound. Some people are just stronger than others. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Bullying And The Cyber Bullying" essay for you Create order As I said before, cyberbullying mostly occurs with younger children. At that time of their lives, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going through changes with their bodies. For example, some people hit puberty faster than others and some get talked about for the changes that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going through during puberty. Adults also go through changes with their bodies. For some reason, we have ideas in our heads of the perfect person or the perfect body. Some people think that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re better than others when thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no such thing. People tend to target others for being different from they are. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if it makes them feel better about themselves or more comfortable in their own skin, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not right, and it can make the victim develop low self-esteem. It makes them feel like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just not good enough. They try all kind of things to change who they are, hoping that things will get better for them and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll then be accepted. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not good to h ave low self-esteem because it plays a big part in the kind of person the victim will become along the way in the future. Something a lot of people donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize is that the person doing the online bullying may have low self-esteem themselves and that may be the reason behind their actions. In person, people may dislike them, and they may take it out on an innocent individual. A lot of times they are being verbally abused in their own home. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we should take cyberbullying very seriously. Cyberbullying can change a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality in many ways. We should pay close attention and weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to notice the changes in behavior. If the victim canÃ¢â¬â¢t reach out to someone, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll just keep it all balled up inside. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll find some kind of outlet to escape the pain that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re feeling. This can turn them into a negative person and begin showing violent behavior, such as picking fights. This can also lead to the victim being disrespectful and acting out in school. When you see unusual behavior occurring, that usually means something is wrong. Keep in mind, people suffer from traumatic events, so this is definitely something to worry about. Children may start skipping school and losing interest, which means theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably turn to the streets and drug use, getting ahold of the wrong things that could get them in trouble with the law. This is how teens end up shooting up their schools. Now, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a huge deal beca use others are now unsafe and at risk. Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t take cyberbullying as serious as they should. Some adults may think, Ã¢â¬Å"oh theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just kids,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"just ignore it.Ã¢â¬ No, this is not okay, and it is a serious matter that should be worried about and taken to the extreme. It is important that everyone take bullying, but more so cyberbullying, very serious, one hundred percent, because it can cause mental health problems, low self-esteem, and changes in personality. We should worry about it as much as possible because it can happen to someone you know or care about.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In 1543 the publication of three great works by Copernicus, Vesalius, and Archimedes sparked the Scientific Revolution. The modern day scientists of this era began to criticize the Aristotelian and Medieval Cosmological views of the world as a result of further experimentation. Furthermore, the Copernican heliocentric model of the universe created an uproar among scientists and theologians alike. Most scientists were loyal to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s cosmos and were unwilling to accept the new world view, while many religious advocates argued that the new world view was contrary to the teachings of the Bible. A prominent Copernican scientist, Galileo Galilei, lived his entire life within the context of the Scientific Revolution. In his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina Galileo explains the way he feels the Bible relates to science, arguing that both nature and Scripture are GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation and thus authoritative in their own right. As a Copernican, Galileo believes in a heliocent ric model of the universe Ã¢â¬â that is, that the sun is Ã¢â¬Å"situated motionless in the centerÃ¢â¬ ¦while the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sunÃ¢â¬ (663, 12-16). He writes that the idea is not his own, and his critics Ã¢â¬Å"pretend not to know that its authorÃ¢â¬ ¦was Nicholas Copernicus.Ã¢â¬ (664, 4-8). Furthermore, his critics call out his propositions as contrary to the Bible and heretical. Galileo explains that these individuals attempt to use Bible passages to disprove the heliocentric cosmology, but to no
Assignment QUES. 1- Sanjeev Kapoor is an expert in making bakery and confectionary products with loads of talent and encouragement from everyone. He wants to go in for his own bakery and confectionary venture. But he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much by the way of money and infrastructure. He knows of some and friends, who might be willing to associate with him to provide necessary funds and infrastructure. What sort of business organization should he go and why? ANS. Ã¢â¬â With the expansion of business, it became necessary for a group of person to join hands together and supply necessary capital and skill. Sanjeev may possess exceptional business ability but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much by the way of money and infrastructure; he can have a financing partner. InÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is a kind of voluntary association for carrying on business operation , therefore, it can be dissolved by the partner by expressing to each other their intention to do so. In the case of partnership at will, it can be dissolved by giving 14 day notice to other partners. QUES.2 Ã¢â¬â Your friend Yuvraj has consulting you to advice regarding his practice in law. Suggest and justify the forms of organization suitable for the purpose. ANS. - A business enterprise can be owned and organized in several forms. Each form of organization has its own merits and demerits. The ultimate choice of the form of business depends upon the balancing of the advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of business. The right choice of the form of the business is very crucial because it determines the power, control, risk and responsibility of the entrepreneur as well as the division of profits and losses. The nature of business is the most important factor. Businesses providing direct services like tailors, restaurants and professional services like doctors, lawyers are generally organized as proprietary concerns. So in this case, he may choose sole proprietorship to practice in law. Characteristics of sole proprietorship: (i) No Separate Legal Entity: legally, the sole trader and his business are not separate entities. In other words, all the assets and liabilities of the businesses are the personal assets and liabilities of theShow MoreRelatedManagement : Management And Management1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesassuring an organization to be able to run smoothly is called as Management. Managers are capable to make decisions that will impact an organization in every phase. These decisions vary from employing new staff to taking a company public. Management is not an easy task, and good managers are highly respected. Management is like investment. Its main purpose is to extract the most out of every resource available in the organization. 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Question: Discuss about theEngineering Marvel for Large Hadron Collider. Answer: Introduction Large Hadron Collider as the name suggests is the world's largest and the most powerful particle accelerator. Initiated on 10 September 2008, the large hadron collider is still in regularly developing stage and is the latest addition to the CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) accelerator campus which is located on France- Switzerland border near Geneva. The LHC is made up of a 27 kilometer ring which comprises of superconducting magnets along with powerful particle accelerators which helps to boost the energy of particles along the way. The working of LHC is complex yet the methodology is simple. In the LHC, two energy particle beams are made to travel at the speed of light and then they are made to collide. These energy particles travel in opposite directions in two separate pipes which are ultrahigh vacuumed to avoid any kind of resistance to the particles. These particles are guided by a strong magnetic field which is ensured by superconducting electromagnets. These particles travel in the accelerator ring. The electromagnets are built from electric cables which are made from special coils. For these magnets to work efficiently and conduct electricity without any loss of energy, these agents are chilled to the temperature of -271.3 oC which is even colder than outer space. The chilling of these magnets is done by using liquid helium, which not only cools magnets but also other parts of the mega machine. In LHC thousands of magnets of varied sizes are used to direct the particles. The large hadron collider compris es of 1232 dipole magnets of 15 meters which are used to bend the beam and 392 quadrupole magnets each of 5-7 meters of length which are used to focus the beams. Just before the collision another set of magnets is used to squeeze the particles so that the chances of collision may increase. Colliding a particle in the LHC is like firing two needles in opposite directions from 10 kilometers apart and that too with such precision that they both meet halfway. All the technicalities, controls, services of the LHC are housed under one roof i.e. the control room at CERN. Controlled from here the beams are made to collide at four locations inside the accelerator ring. These four particle detectors are ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb. Inside the accelerator around 3000 bunches of particles are accelerated which contains as many as 100 billion particles. These particles are so insignificant in the terms of size that colliding them is a very cumbersome task and even the chances are low. At the time when these particles cross each other, only 40 collisions take place between 200 billion particles. These bunches crosses each other 30 million times in a second! The LHC thus collides around 1 billion particles per second (CERN, 2017; CERN, 2017). Technological Significance The LHC has many benefits which includes Technological development, Workforce development and the Core science. The benefits derived from the research at LHC are discussed below in details: (CERN, 2017) Technology Development: Apart from space exploration and solving the mysteries of outer space, the research conducted at LHC can give the answer to many unsolved theories and questions which haven't been answered before. Followings are the examples of how development of this technology has benefitted the technological development: Cancer therapy- The accelerator physics has been able to develop the concept of high energy physics in which the particles can now be focused to a small area and they will interact only at the desired location instead of the entire path which helps to determine the area of cancer increase the effectiveness of the treatment. The advanced treatment of cancer lies in acceleration physics so the technology and the method used in LHC has given an answer to treat the disease in a better way. Manufacturing processes- The technology of accelerator physics has also helped in cleaning the process of manufacturing of materials. For ex. The process of tire manufacturing requires vulcanization of rubber which was earlier done through using chemicals but now with the help of accelerator physics the process of vulcanization has become cleaner with minimum or no use of chemicals. Medical and industrial imaging- The cameras used in the process of body and material imaging is the same used in the particle accelerator but the advancement of the technology in used in LHC has helped to make the process easier and better. Pattern Recognition- The first pattern recognition algorithms were developed to recognize the tracks of particle in the form of images of interactions. The process has developed its own importance in the years but the basics of the methods have been derived from particle physics. Grid/cloud computing- The researchers working at LHC and those who worked at Tevatron (the predecessor the LHC) have contributed significantly to cloud/grid computing. The experiments conducted at LHC require huge amour of space to be stores as the information is plenty. The information is produced at LHC is around tens of petabytes annually. This information is stored, processed and distributed by the means of grid computing. The world wide web- Before the development of the web page, the internet was only composed of email, ftp servers and usenets. The web page was developed and was first introduced by CERN so that the researchers were able to share the information about high energy physics. Workforce Development The challenges which were faced by the scientists at the LHC campus were not ordinary and required an entirely unique set of skills and techniques of problem solving by the workers. Cultivated by core science, this technical mindset and expertise can be a valuable skillset to the field of particle acceleration and many other research fields. Additionally it was not possible to develop the LHC if it wasn't for the workers who left their industry job and contributed in the development of the technology (BBC News, 2015). The Core Science The benefits of technology and workforce are of short term and are achieved by the pursuit of problem finding will to the questions remained unanswered. So the funding of such projects depends on the perceived scientific benefits. The concept and the theoretical assumptions of LHC will not only help us to get to know universe but it will also increase our understanding about nuclear physics and quantum technology by accelerating the particles at speed which has never been done yet. Following are the aims of Large Hadron Collider: To search for the Higgs Boson particle this is predicted by the Standard model. This particle helps the other particle to acquire mass. To search the answer to the inconsistency of the particle based on the standard model. To search for the sources of dark matter. To search for the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. To measure the size and structure of proton. To be able to understand the nature of cosmic rays and how they interact with our atmosphere. To confirm the existence of quark-gluon plasma and to know about its properties. The research conducted at CERN will also help to know about the concept of anti-gravity drives i.e. the ability to fold space which is just a speculative assumption for now. The practical benefits of LHC are still unknown so we will refer to the historical examples instead. From what is known is that the understating the theories like quantum field theory have generated many practical benefits in the past which are stated below: Developed about a century ago, initially the quantum mechanics was just another theory filled with puzzles and unanswered questions with no practical application. Around 50 years age a transistor was developed which helped us to understand the concept of quantum theory and quantum mechanics. The transistor comprised of the core of many computer chips. Without this transistor, the computers will still be made of vacuum tubes and would occupy large space. This led to the development of personal computer, laptops, smart phones etc. Studies related to atom have helped to develop the concept and working of nuclear power and nuclear bombs. Though the process of development of this technology has been long and frustrating the study has helped to generate the clean and safe source of power. The only drawback of this research is that the negative effects and uses of technology are more than positive effects. If fallen into wrong hands, this technology can have devastating effects. Another major research conducted around 150 years ago was the study of fundamental electromagnetism which shares it fundamental concepts with particle physics. The benefits yielded from this research is used by electrical engineers which has allowed them to create radios, batteries, the mathematically modeled effects of interference in circuits and many other. The specialty of LHC is that it squeezes the energy of collision in a space million times smaller. The particles when collide produces the energy around 14V, but in LHC the researchers have been able to reach the level of 1150V which is higher than ever recorded in history. We can compare this achievement by taking an example from daily routine; the energy produced while we clap our hands is much more than what was achieved at CERN but it is evenly distributed around our palm. The achievement of LHC is that it has been able to produce the same level of energy but at a million times smaller space(CERN, 2017). Discussion of Challenges A structure like LHC is not possible to build without facing any challenges. The development of LHC faced engineering challenges across every virtual engineering discipline. The major challenge was placing and maintaining magnets and cryogenics which are discussed below (Collier, 2015; Schmidt Vergara, 2002; Alonso, 2015): Magnets- In an electromagnet which is used in particle accelerator, the current flowing through the coils generates field. In an ordinary electromagnet this field can be limited by using iron yoke through which the coil passes whose closeness to the beam pipe determines the quality and strength of the field. This type of magnet is limited by the saturation of the iron yoke to a central field produced around. In a superconducting magnet, the field is generated directly by suitable distribution of the current arranged properly around the beam pipe. Placing magnets accurately was the most difficult challenge faced by the engineers. These magnets are used to direct the beam around the accelerator. The cumbersome task was placing these magnets precisely so that the particles could collide. If any one of these magnets was placed incorrectly the consequences could be life threatening also the collision wont take place. This could also damage the whole machine. Another problem with the magne tic placement was that all these magnets were electromagnets and they tend to lose their strength and potency from time-to-time. Many incidents have been reported where magnets have failed catastrophically which led to failure of tests. The constant failures were another challenge faced by the machine as it wasted a lot of energy. The working of LHC required the energy in huge units and this energy was needed regularly. Energy requirements of the Large Hadron Collider are incredibly high because the machine cant be stopped. Searching for a stable source of energy to electrify magnets was another challenge faced by the engineers. Cryogenics- This was the biggest challenge faced by the engineers working at CERN on the LHC. The aim was to increase the potency of the electromagnets which regularly gets used up during the process and lose its strength. Another issue was to cool down the 27 km long setup which gets immensely used up because of working at high energy levels. The answers to the questions were many but the most promising was liquid helium. The problem now the scientists faced was the cost of the machine was already touching roof and this was another expensive addition to the system. Acquiring liquid helium was not tough but it was very expensive and it was required in huge amount. Another complication was the maintenance required by this substance. Liquid helium requires high maintenance to maintain its temperature so it was stored in special containers which would keep the substance safe from the affects of the particle beam. The electromagnets were immersed in the substance so that its strength was maintained which helped it to reach the chilling temperature of 271.3 o This issue was though solved by the engineers but maintenance and procurement of liquid helium still remains a costly task and researchers are regularly working on procuring a better and inexpensive substance which will be the essence of the cryogenic system of LHC. Societal Challenges- The social challenges faced by the LHC were less and were answered by the researchers so that people may feel safe. Yet the major issue LHC faced was the high energy requirements. The machine used to work for 10 days just for a single operation because the rates of collisions were less. Such huge machines are also hard to start and even this process can take many days. The high energy requirements for such operations were becoming an issue as it was constantly using up valuable resources and that too in huge amounts. Apart from this many people also feared that the working of machine would re-create a parallel universe which may give rise to the sources of dark energy such as black hole. A black hole is so powerful that it can even suck planets and stars in it. But this concern of people was answered by scientists because even if any black hole will form it will be of very small size and would disappear instantly without causing any damage(The Telegraph, 2010). Conclusion After 25 years of hard work the LHC was commissioned at intermediate energy and performed well during the early stage of its operations. Even in the early stage, the machine was able to provide data which helped the scientists to discover and know the properties of the God Particle i.ee Higgs Boson. During the period of operations the machine also went under a two year shutdown period from 2013-2015. The machine is now in operational mode and the next shutdown will take place halfway in 2018. This period of operations has been very exciting and is expected to provide more specific data and answers to many questions. So it can be concluded that throughout its operational period the Large Hadron Collider has confronted many technical, engineering, operational and social challenges and has been successful in helping us to get to know the universe. This scientific invention can thus be stated as an engineering marvel which is expected to give many other insights in the future. References Alonso, I. B. (2015). HL-LHC challenges and impact in a nutshell. Hi Lumi HL-LHC Project. BBC News. (2015, March 28). What is the point of large Hadron Collider? Retrieved 2017, from Bbc.com: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-32087787 CERN. (2017). CERN-Brochure. Retrieved from Cds.cern.ch: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2255762/files/CERN-Brochure-2017-002-Eng.pdf CERN. (2017). The Large Hadron Collider. Retrieved from Home.cern: https://home.cern/topics/large-hadron-collider Collier, P. (2015). The technical challenges of the Large Hadron Collider. Philosophical Transaction A Royal Society. Schmidt, R., Vergara, A. (2002). Machine Protection and Interlock System for the LHC. Grenoble. The Telegraph. (2010, March 30). Large Hadron Collider hits problems as scientists bid to start high energy collissions. Retrieved 2017, from Telegraph.co.uk: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/large-hadron-collider/7537355/Large-Hadron-Collider-hits-problems-as-scientists-bid-to-start-high-energy-collisions.html